DNA and Testing the Hypothesis of Independent Assortment

Part 1:

DNA is used as a template to synthesize new DNA. This process is referred to as replication.

Discuss the similarities and differences in DNA replication between eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Are the changes in eukaryotes adaptations? Explain.

Please write an essay of complete and well composed paragraphs (250 word minimum for the entire essay) Be sure to use in text citation and provide references for your sources. Wikipedia is not a source.

Part 2:

Testing the Hypothesis of Independent Assortment

As shown in Figure 12.19 in your textbook, you predict that you will observe the following offspring proportions:

tall/inflated: tall/constricted: dwarf/inflated: dwarf/constricted in a 9:3:3:1 ratio.

Notice from the grid that when considering the tall/dwarf and inflated/constricted trait pairs in isolation, they are each inherited in 3:1 ratios as expected with a monohybrid cross.

Figure 12.19 in your textbook shows all possible combinations of offspring resulting from a dihybrid cross of pea plants that are heterozygous for the tall/dwarf and inflated/constricted alleles.

Compose a response to the following questions. Enter both question and answers.

Test the hypothesis: You cross the dwarf and tall plants and then self-cross the offspring. For best results, this is repeated with hundreds or even thousands of pea plants. What special precautions should be taken in the crosses and in growing the plants?

Analyze your data: You observe the following plant phenotypes in the F2 generation: 2706 tall/inflated, 930 tall/constricted, 888 dwarf/inflated, and 300 dwarf/constricted. Reduce these findings to a ratio and determine if they are consistent with Mendelian laws.

Form a conclusion: Were the results close to the expected 9:3:3:1 phenotypic ratio? Do the results support the prediction? What might be observed if far fewer plants were used, given that alleles segregate randomly into gametes? Try to imagine growing that many pea plants, and consider the potential for experimental error. For instance, what would happen if it was extremely windy one day?

Be sure to use in text citation and provide references for your sources. Wikipedia is not a source.

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