Do a paper with Introduction, Methods and work cited about The Immediate Effects of Caffeine on PTC Perception. –

The style of the paper is like a proposal.
I have an example and must be much like this one with other work cited.
PTC is a needle-like crystal3 with an unusual taste characteristic due to allelic variations in the taster’s genes. There are two common alleles of PTC, the tasting allele and the non-tasting
allele. Each allele codes for a bitter taste receptor protein with a different shape. The shape determines how strongly the receptor can bind to PTC. Because there are two copies of every gene,
combinations of the bitter taste gene determine whether someone finds PTC intensely bitter, somewhat bitter, or tasteless. The ability to taste PTC is a dominant genetic trait denoted by (T), while
the inability to taste PTC is a recessive trait denoted by (t). Although the range of perceived bitterness varies, there are three main categories in which tasters are placed: Strong Tasters (TT)
Moderate Tasters (Tt) and Non-tasters (tt.) While the ability to taste or not taste PTC is genetically inherited, environmental factors may alter the phenotype. In general, if a taster is
frequently exposed to bitter substances, such as caffeine or cigarette smoke, their ability to taste PTC is desensitized. If a taster is not exposed to bitter substances or does not have an
affinity for them, i.e., they do not frequently consume caffeine or smoke cigarettes, they will be able to taste PTC.
In a study produced by the British Medical Journal, it was found that the immediate effects of smoking a cigarette showed a slight improvement in taste perception for the taste primaries in both
smokers and nonsmokers. The changes were not statistically significant, nor was the improvement of the smokers significantly different from that in the non-smokers. The study concluded that the
smoking of a cigarette had no immediate effect on taste perception.1 In another study produced by the Nature Publishing Group, it was found that amongst three different bitter substances, caffeine,
quinine hydrochloride, and urea, caffeine thresholds were most closely correlated with those of PTC.2 Although the study did not include threshold of cigarette smoke in comparison to that of
caffeine, caffeine was justifiably chosen. The tongue is covered with bumps called papillae. Each papilla contains multiple taste buds filled with gustatory cells, the tips of these gustatory cells
are covered with an assortment of bitter taste receptors that, when stimulated, send a signal to the brain in order to produce the sensation of taste. We predict that caffeine will have a stronger
impact than cigarette smoke because cigarette smoke affects the shape of taste buds over time. On the other hand, caffeine causes your brain, not the sensory receptors on your tongue, to become
fatigued with similar sensory information. Because caffeine is a liquid, it has the ability to coat the papillae of the tongue, thereby having an effect on the immediate consumption. Using these
studies and information as a basis, we aim to support the claim that a taster’s ability to perceive PTC as bitter is decreased after they drink caffeine.
A group of 23 subjects, 7 males and 16 females, will be tested for PTC sensitivity in an identical manner. The subjects will be asked to rinse their mouths with water and then place a strip of PTC
paper containing approximately .007mg of PTC per strip on their tongues. The subjects will be separated into Tasters, Moderate Tasters, and Non-tasters. They will be put into these categories by
simply being asked how strongly they can perceive the PTC if at all. Then, all the participants will be given a cup of coffee and asked to immediately place the .007mg PTC strips on their tongues.
It is hypothesized that the subject’s ability to perceive PTC will be significantly decreased.
1British Medical Journal
Feb 11, 1961
“Taste Perception in Smokers and Non-Smokers”
L.H. Krut, M.B. Ch.B.
Monica J. Perrin, B.Sc., Dip.Diet.
B. Bronte-Stewart, M.D., M.R.C.P.
2 PTC Taste Blindness and the Taste of Caffeine
Nature Publishing Group
6 February 1975 Vol 253 pg. 442
Molly J. Hall, Linda M. Bartoshuk, William S. Cain and Joseph C. Stevens

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