paraphrase answers that correspond with there question

paraphrase answers that correspond with there question


  • Regarding oxygen transport, deduce the specific additional step that must occur in animals with a closed circulatory system, compared to those with an open system.
    • For animals with closed circulatory system, which include larger or more active animals, arteries and major veins have to increase the blood pressure and distribute the blood, and the two processes of pulmonary and systemic circulation have to happen. The blood has to go through the longs to become oxygenated, while systemic circulation will then send the oxygenated blood throughout the rest of the body. While open circulatory systems basically send all the organs or tissues blood, the closed circulatory system mandates that vessels transport bloods quickly at high pressures to the rest of the body.
  • List and describe the functions of three types of vessels in a cardiovascular system.
    • Arteries: carries blood away from the heart
    • Veins: returns blood to the heart
    • Capillaries: exchanges materials with interstitial fluid
  • Explain why veins are the only blood vessels that contain valves.
    • This allows the blood vessels to prevent backflow of blood, since veins take blood towards the heart. Furthermore, the blood pressure is lower in veins than in the arteries, so valves are necessary to to hinder any flow backwards.
  • Examine the evolutionary benefits of a two-circuit circulatory pathway compared to a
    • Some evolutionary benefits include letting the rest of the body, including muscles and tissues, have more oxygen, and though it requires more energy than a single circulatory system, it is vital for animals that breathe air on land. The four chambered heart and pulmonary systems that developed as animals moved from the water to the land depends on two circuit circulatory pathways.
  • Predict what type of conditions might occur as a result of chronic hypertension and plaque.
    • Coronary heart disease, high blood pressure, obesity, and heart attacks are very likely as a result of chronic hypertension and plaque, and often death may be imminent if diet and lifestyle changes are not attempted.
  • List the major components of blood and the functions of each.
    • Plasma: contains many nutrients, salts, proteins, and wastes. Some of the proteins buffer the blood which keeps their pH level around 7.4. Also, they maintain the blood’s osmotic pressure so that water develops a tendency to enter blood capillaries. Many plasma proteins transport big organic molecules in the blood and many plasma proteins are involved in blood clotting.
    • Red Blood Cells: are small and have disks that concave on both sides and at maturity lac a nucleus and have the respiratory pigment hemoglobin
    • White Blood Cells: are larger than RBCs, have nuclei, do not have hemoglobin, and appear translucent until stained; they are either granular leukocytes (helps defend body against microbes and parasites) or agranular leukocytes (respond to tissues when there are infections or provide immune responses)
    • Platelets: assist in blood clotting/coagulation, assisting in when blood vessels are damaged
  • Explain why the Rh incompatibility is a problem only when a fetus is Rh-positive and the mother is Rh-negative, but not vice-versa.

Although there may be no problems during the first pregnancy, the lack of fetal blood cells entering the mother’s circulatory system will not elicit an immune response, but once the child is born, blood may slip out of the placenta and into the mother. Her immune system will then work by producing antibodies and memory cells, which may then go into the fetus and harm the fetal red blood cells.

Fluid Exchange Across The Walls of Capillaries


  • List some features common to animals like hydrates, earthworms, and salamanders, which are able to exchange gases directly with their environment.
  • A: They can use their body surface for respiration, keeping the body moist by secreting mucus and releasing fluids from excretory pores. They also have large surface areas in comparison to their size which makes it possible for cells to exchange gases directly with the environment.
  • Explain why the countercurrent flow that occurs in the gills of fish is much more efficient than concurrent flow would be.
    • It is more efficient because concurrent would have oxygen rich water flowing in the same direction as oxygen poor blood in the vessels. Countercurrent helps blood gain oxygen, because as it interacts with water having a higher oxygen content which prevents the equilibrium point from being reached and allow for more oxygen to be extracted from the water.
  • Describe how the mechanism of ventilation in reptiles and mammals is similar to changing the volume of a flexible container.
    • Because the lungs can expand and contract much like a flexible container, and while reptiles have jointed ribs that expand the lungs, mammals have a rib cage and diaphragm that allows for the contracting and expanding much like the flexible container’s changing volume.
  • Explain how the carotid bodies and aortic bodies affect the rate of respiration.
    • These stimulate the respiratory center during intense exercise due to a reduction in pH. When hydrogen ions rise in the blood, the pH decreases and the respiratory increases its rate and depth of breathing.
  • Define the role of oxyhemoglobin, reduced hemoglobin, and carbaminohemoglobin in homeostasis.
    • Oxyhemoglobin: this is the compound formed when oxygen combines with hemoglobin in homeostasis Reduced hemoglobin: Oxygen is given up, then diffuses out of the blood into the tissues due to the reduced hemoglobin; it has vital role in maintaining the normal pH of the blood due to its combination with hydrogen ionsCarbaminohemoglobin: this hemoglobin carries carbon dioxide within the blood
  • Name two disorders of the lower respiratory tract that mainly cause a narrowing of the airways, and two that mainly restrict the lungs’ ability to expand.

Lower respiratory tract disorders that cause a narrowing of the airways include asthma or bronchitis.

Restricting the lungs’ ability to expand are emphysema and pulmonary fibrosis.

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